I think it's still a case of the adapter you're using, you need to plug it in with something the same size (1/4 jack into a 1/4 jack hole) cause as stated before you're probably taking a stereo signal and trying to push it through a smaller mono device. You either need to invest in
a) That mic mate thing, that will convert you're mic into a usb signal
b) A usb mic
c) An outboard sound card that has capabilities for mics to be plugged in, because they're also gonna need a preamp anyway, otherwise you're not gonna be getting much sound out of them. This is what i use. And if you ever invest in a condenser mic it also has phantom power.
And once again the pc wont recognise that the mic is plugged in as it's not sending any kind of digital signal to your computer telling it it's a device, only usb mics do that. Any kind of signal your pc WOULD recieve from the mic would be via your pc's soundcard.
Hope this helps a little bit, it's quite badly worded...by brain got ahead of my fingers and i've just woken up lol.