This was okay. It certainly wasn't bad, and I *really* don't mean to discourage you, because a bit of work and polish could really make it shine!
There's an older game called Gravity Trails that had a planet-hopping mechanic and was very simple (it was done in 48 hours for Ludlum Dare), but the physics was nicely done, the small map made clever use of the tools available (and steadily escalated in difficulty between saves) and there was a lot of personality and consistency despite those basic graphics. I recommend checking it out, because these were the main aspects in which I feel you could have improved:
1. The physics are really weird, especially the constant downwards gravity. If escape velocity is low enough, you should be able to fly off in any direction (and potentially die) unless and until you're captured by another planet, whereas if it's higher you should stay on until you're attracted by a nearby planet, and travel a direction determined by the planetary midpoints and your angle of ascent. The additional linear force really felt off, and the game played more like a one-button platformer because of it.
2. Level design was genuinely disappointing. The laser gauntlets in particular were usually completely avoidable and felt superfluous, but that aside the challenges didn't seem to scale much as you progressed, and at no point did I really have to step back and think about what I was doing. Sometimes, I got the impression you were just rushing through the levels without giving them a lot of thought. A few very tightly-designed levels—perhaps with some clever arrangements thrown in to make them more tricky—would be much cooler than a lot of less interesting ones.
3. Because the game was so stripped-down, it needed some more personality to be compelling. You seemed to be going for a kinda friendly, sketchy, homegrown feel, which is fine, but there were only a few types of planets, and there was only a little sense of consistency between them or the other game assets. (Also, I think some of the assets were either low-res or oddly scaled, so they looked a bit fuzzy on my monitor.)
I was going to say something about the music too, but my husband (completely unprompted!) commented along the lines of "that's some really cool music, what game is that?" so… let's just say feedback on that is mixed. ;) Also, I know that finding decent beats is damn hard, if that was all I thought this was lacking I wouldn't hold it against you!