I have no idea how to adjust my advice to a semi-colorblind person so ill just tell you my regular way of choosing colours and hope it works for you...
1) Colours express character and mood. When you create a character , you wanna give him a mood, a feeling. You r not making a statue , you wanna give the impression of a living being and since he is not really alive , you must design him in a way that tells what kind of character he is. To accoplish this you use facial expressions , clothing , body structure , type of weaponry/gear and ofcourse color scheme . Lets say you wanna make an angry badass warrior. You will use aggressive colours like red to show he is an angry and warlike dude and metalics to show that he is a warrior. You wont be using pink though right? Or lets say you wanna draw a monster. A black monster with say , red eyes looks quite feral and predatory. Maybe add some stripes , like a tiger's to enhance the predatory feel even more. Take the same design and paint it blue with yellow polka dots. Now its more like a pokeman right? So , colour scheme expresses character. Its easy really , before you start painting , just think in your mind what kind of colours fit the mood you want to give.
2) Mixing and matching colours is very important unless your drawing a disco dance floor. I dont know how your colour blindness reacts to this but in general , try using colours that go well together. To achieve this , just test it. Decide your primary colour and then use others in combination. See what goes well and what hits the eye badly. Its a pitty to ruin an otherwise great work cause the colors are over saturated and random. There must be an even scheme , each color must compliment the other so it doesnt look like a rainbow vomit. You can sepperate colours in categories if this helps you , its very innacurate and wide but its good to get an idea..Natural colours like brown , green and grey mix well together. Blue , Red and Purple are also great in combination. Yellow and orange are also a great mix but be carefull how you use these two cause they are very bright and its often better to use them as complimentary instead of base.
I hope i helped a bit , at least this is the thought process i made when i was figuring out my own palette. Test , practice and test some more and you will find your own soon! Best of luck !